By Marcel Erdal
Outdated Turkic is the earliest, at once attested Turkic language. This unique paintings describes the grammar of outdated Turkic. The language is documented in inscriptions within the 'runic' script in Mongolia and the Yenisey basin, from the 7th to the 10th century; in Uygur manuscripts from chinese language Turkestan in Uygur, and in runic and different scripts (comprising spiritual – in most cases Buddhist –, felony, literary, scientific, folkloric, astrological and private material), from the 9th to the 13th century; and in eleventh-century Qarakhanid texts, more often than not in Arabic writing. All points of previous Turkic are handled: phonology, subphonemic phenomena and morphophonology, and how those are mirrored within the a variety of scripts, derivational and inflectional morphology, grammatical different types, be aware sessions, syntax, textual and extra-textual reference and different technique of coherence, lexical fields, discourse kinds, phrasing in addition to stylistic, dialect and diachronic version.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Old Turkic
Grønbech and a student of V. Thomsen) and A. Salonen were the first to deal with grammatical categories and some aspects of the syntax of Old Turkic in a general linguistic context (1936 and 1937 respectively). Németh 1939, Mansuro÷lu 1957 and K. Thomsen 1957 (K. Grønbech’s student) all deal with the origin and nature of Turkic /e/ as distinct both from /ä/ and /i/ (but not necessarily from /ä:/); cf. also Doerfer 1994. This topic is highly relevant even now, as none of the alphabets used for writing Old Turkic has a special character for this phoneme; its existence is therefore sometimes still contested.
A systematic listing of formatives can be found in Clauson 1962. Schakir 1933 and Nigmatov 1971 both deal with denominal formation. OTWF might be said to supersede much of what preceded it in connection with word formation simply because it was based on a much wider material basis. One particular point of that work is corrected in Röhrborn 1995, which deals with the nominal use of ‘adjectives’. Doerfer 1982 gives examples for lexical units used as both nominals and verbs; that this is possible in Old Turkic grammar is denied in Erdal 1976/1991.
Doerfer 1971. We already mentioned some of the work on the vowels of Old Turkic. Röhrborn 1996 is about synharmonism in foreign words. The introductions to BuddhKat (a text in Tibetan writing) and Maue 1996 contain valuable observations to the vowel system as emerging from these sources. Sims-Williams 1981 should be basic reading for anyone dealing with the Old Turkic consonants. Among the consonants the labials were discussed by Borovkova 1966 and Hitch 1989, the alveolars by Maue 1983, the gutturals by Maue 1984 and Röhrborn 1988.