Download e-book for kindle: Alternative Energy (Volume 3) by Schlager N., Weisblatt J.

By Schlager N., Weisblatt J.

This three-volume set introduces researchers to matters surrounding either present power assets and replacement power techniques. whereas there's major dialogue of the non-renewable assets now used to satisfy nearly all of the world's power wishes (oil, coal and usual gas), the first concentration of the set is on more recent techniques to satisfy the ever-growing call for. those recommendations comprise wind and solar power, gas cells, hydropower, geothermal strength and biomass power. additionally, extra theoretical resources also are explored, together with chilly fusion, 0 element strength and common forces. Entries talk about the technology at the back of the strength resource, extraordinary scientists and medical discoveries, present examples of use, and the problems, demanding situations and hindrances to large-scale use. prepared alphabetically by way of access identify.

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From 1975 to 1991 the Itaipu´ Dam was built across the Parana´ River as a joint project by Brazil and Paraguay. The plant has eighteen generating units that can provide 12,600 megawatts of power, or 75 million megawatt-hours per year, enough wattage to power most of California. By 1995 the dam was providing 25 percent of Brazil’s energy and 78 percent of Paraguay’s. The dam, called one of the ‘‘Seven Wonders of the Modern World’’ by the American Society of Civil Engineers, is enormous. The amount of iron and steel used in its construction could have built 380 Eiffel Towers (the famous landmark in Paris).

Construction on the dam began in 1931; it was completed five years later, under budget, for $165 million. 24 trillion gallons of water. The dam is 726 feet (221 meters) tall, and at its base is 660 feet (201 meters) thick. 5 million cubic yards of concrete would be enough to build a two-lane highway from Seattle, Washington, to Miami, Florida. 3 million people. The largest hydroelectric dam in the United States is the Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River in Washington State. Construction began on the dam in 1933 and was completed in 1942.

This power costs less than one-fifth of the cost of electricity produced by new oil-fired generators. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION Ocean thermal energy conversion, or OTEC, is the primary means of extracting thermal energy from the world’s oceans. It is based on the thermal gradient, which refers to the difference in temperature between the ocean’s surface waters, which are warmed by the sun, and its deeper waters, which originate in polar latitudes and are therefore much colder. The concept of using the thermal gradient to produce electricity was first proposed by French biophysicist Jacques Arsene d’Arsonval (1851–1940) in 1881.

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