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By H. van Loon, D. J. Shea (auth.), Professor Dr. Dietrich Sahrhage (eds.)

During the intensification of study actions within the Southern Ocean in recent times, either at nationwide degrees and during foreign cooperation in such initiatives as BIOMASS with its FIBEX and SIBEX stages, the necessity used to be felt more and more for nearer collaboration among biologists, meteorologists, and oceanographers within the learn of the interplay among the atmospheric forces, the water plenty, and the residing assets. higher wisdom during this regard is not just of medical curiosity but in addition of functional significance, specially for the administration of the assets and the security of the Antarctic marine surroundings. As a follow-up on a suggestion through the IOC software staff for the Southern Oceans made in March 1983, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic fee prepared a gathering of specialists on oceanography concerning the dynamics of the Antarctic ecosystems. in this assembly, held in Kiel, Federal Republic of Ger­ many, in may possibly 1984, biologists and oceanographers concerned about BIOMASS actions met with the oceanographers of SCOR operating team seventy four to debate methods and potential for added actual and chemical observations within the oceanographic examine inside BIOMASS. It was once the time while huge fluctuations within the distribution of krill with next hazardous results on predator species depending on krill had simply been saw, and the query arose no matter if this used to be in all probability the results of alterations within the Antarctic water circulation.

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Movement of the sea ice edge may help to promote cyclorefer to the possible effects on primary productivity. genesis over ocean latitudes immediately to the north. HowCroxall et al. and Priddle et al. ) point out that the ever, according to van Loon and Shea (this VoL), other seasons 1977/78 and 1983/84, when krill was scarce around observations contradict this idea. Greatest interannual South Georgia and land-based predators experienced poor variations in ice extent occur in the major Antarctic embaybreeding success, both followed years with strong EI Nino/ ments (Weddell and Ross Seas).

This development was combined with a decrease in the duration of the ice cover in the region of Marguerite Bay. Schwerdtfeger attributed this to a change in the atmospheric circulation pattern with a strengthening of the geostrophic wind component from the northwest. The little information which is available for recent years seems to indicate that the waters of Marguerite Bay are usually open to navigation from late December into February (BAS personal communication). ) did not detect a long period trend in the atmospheric circulation over the Drake Passage, Scotia Sea, and Weddell Sea during a 29-year time sp~:es.

1974: Heavy ice winter, particularly during the second half, greatest equatorward extent of sea ice during the 1973-77 period (Carleton 1983). 1976 and 1977: Light ict winters (see Fig. 3). , Amos 1984; Lubimova et al. 1985; Witek et al. this VoL). It seems that krill is often particularly abundant within frontal zones and concentrated in meanders and eddies at boundaries between strong and weak flows of water. However, there are also contradicting observations from the Bransfield Strait, where krill abundance decreased in the boundary zone between waters of Bellingshausen Sea and Weddell Sea origin, while it was higher both north and south of this zone (Siegel 1985).

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