By Ian W. Sutherland
This quantity offers an intensive account of the constitution and synthesis of microbial exopolysaccharides and in their common software throughout a large variety of industries, together with meals, oil and drugs. The profitable exploitation of those polysaccharides calls for a valid medical figuring out in their chemical and actual houses and in addition their biochemistry and biosynthesis.
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Extra info for Biotechnology of Microbial Exopolysaccharides
A hemiacetal is formed on the reducing side of the cleavage site. 0 -549 Fig. 6. Alginase action on substrates. Enzyme activity measured colorimetrically against alginates of differing mannuronic acid content. polymers internally. However, one enzyme functioning as an exoenzyme, sequentially removing oligosaccharides from the polysaccharide chain, has recently been reported. ) differ from the other enzymes of this type in attacking the side-chain of the substrate polysaccharides. C. 3) Alginate prepared from either marine algae or bacterial exopolysaccharides is the substrate for a range of different alginases, all endolyases.
Thus in prokaryotes, ADP-D-glucose is used in glycogen synthesis, whereas all other glucose-containing polymers appear to be formed from UDP-D-glucose. In this way, the synthesis of the storage polymer glycogen can be regulated in a manner distinct from glycan formation. Although the allosteric regulators for ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity differ in the various bacterial species, they are all primary products of carbohydrate catabolism or of gluconeogenesis. 1. Sugar nucleotide interconversions Mechanism Products 2-Epimerisation 4-Epimerisation UDP-7V-acetyl-D-mannosamine UDP-D-galactose, UDP-D-galacturonic acid, UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine UDP-D-xylose UDP-D-glucuronic acid, GDP-D-mannuronic acid Decarboxylation Dehydrogenation Reversal of C3 and C5 configuration and deoxysugar formation galactose GDP-L-fucose galactose 1-P UDP-galactose epimerase glucose —•• glucose 6-P — • glucose 1-P — • UDP-glucose I dehydrogenase UDP-glucuronic acid fructose 6-P GDP-fucose mannose 6-P mannose 1-P GDP-mannose Fig.
Scleroglucan hydrolysis After alkali treatment to yield the random coil form, scleroglucan can be degraded by the l,3-/3-D-glucanase zymolyase from Arthrobacter luteus. 1). C. C. 59) Enzymes degrading dextrans are of relatively common occurrence and are produced by a wide range of microorganisms. 1. 7,3 fi-D-glucanases Products from Source Mode of action Curdlan/laminarin Scleroglucan Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Saccharomyces cerevisiae Basidiomycete aphyllophorales Bacillus circulans Penicillium italicum Rhizopus arrhizus exoglucanase exoglucanase endoglucanase exoglucanase endoglucanase endoglucanase endoglucanase glucose glucose glucose glucose — — — Oerskovia xanthinolytica Trichoderma reesei Arthrobacter sp.