By Jan Fahrenkrug (auth.), Jens F. Rehfeld, Jens R. Bundgaard (eds.)
The goal of the current quantity is to demonstrate the trendy organic notion of simple endocrinology in a single unmarried publication. It first describes common matters comparable to maturation of secretory granules within the cells, the jobs of the chaperonic granins, and cell-specific prohormone processing. thus, the categorical a part of the publication illustrates the hot endocrine biology, utilizing as examples a large number of person peptide structures: ACTH, Neurotensin and Neuromedines, Natriuretic Peptides, Glucagon and Glucagon-like peptides, Somatostatin, Ghrelin, Gastrin and VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide).
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Extra resources for Cellular Peptide Hormone Synthesis and Secretory Pathways
2000; Briolat et al. 2005). g. endothelial, endocardial and epithelial cells, other leucocytes, fibroblasts, cardiomyocytes, and vascular and intestinal smooth muscle. 4 Granin Peptides and Targets The first reported targets for granin peptides were the pancreatic b cells for the CgA-derived peptide PST (Tatemoto et al. 1986), the bovine parathyroid cells for CgB1–41 (Russell et al. 1994) and the rat striatum for SN (Saria et al. 1993). During the last decade, the spectrum of targets has increased exponentially, notably for the CgA-derived peptides and for SN.
Analogously, in the Langendorff preparation of the nonworking rat heart, a perfusion with VS-1 caused a negative inotropic effect including inhibition of the inotropic response to ISO via EC-dependent NO production (Cerra et al. 2006, 2008), suggesting that, whatever the subcellular signaling route, VS-1 may exert negative inotropic effects on vertebrate hearts. Intriguingly, VS-I was ineffective on the basal contractility on rat papillary muscle while partially reducing the effect of ISO stimulation via EC-derived NO production (Gallo et al.
B. Helle Two aspects remain presently unanswered, namely the question of receptors and concentrations needed to obtain the reported effects. For VS-I or SN, there is to date no reported extracellular receptor, while for CAT the nicotinic acethylcholin receptor in the sympatoadrenal system mediates only the autocrine inhibitory effect on the adrenal medulla. For VS-I and PST, there are reports on peptide-binding membrane proteins of the order of 70–80 kDa coupled to G-proteins. It has been postulated that hydrophobic and amphipathic properties of VS-I and CAT might allow for their receptor-independent penetration into and activation of cells (Helle 2009).