By Georges Rebuschi, Laurice Tuller
As a regular interface phenomenon, clitics became more and more very important in linguistic conception over the last decade. the current e-book contributes to the hot dialogue and primary offers a entire review of clitic sequencing, clitic placement and clitic doubling within the significant Romance languages. additionally, new information from a northern Italian dialect are brought. the writer then provides a serious precis of the present morphological analyses of clitic phenomena. She additionally discusses fresh Optimality-theoretical analyses of clitic mixtures and clitic placement and exhibits how those analyses might be greater upon after we additionally contemplate a morphological remedy of clitics. This publication offers leading edge recommendations to clitic phenomena in the framework of a constraint-based morphological concept and should be of curiosity not just to morphologists, syntacticians and people engaged on the grammar of Romance languages, but in addition to linguists who're attracted to the supplier of the grammar and the lexicon.
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Additional resources for Clitics Between Syntax and Lexicon
Martina spedisce la lettera a Vito. ’ b. Martina me lo spedisce. ’ c. *Martina lo mi spedisce. (Monachesi, 1995:38) The ordering criterion, however, cannot be taken into account if one wants to prove the aYxal status of clitics, since it distinguishes clitics and aYxes on the one hand and words on the other. This becomes clear from Zwicky’s statement: “Ordering. an element that is strictly ordered with respect to adjacent morphemes is almost surely a clitic (or an aYx), while an element exhibiting free order with respect to adjacent words is certainly an independent word.
As I will also show with respect to a number of other processes below, optionality of morphophonological processes often distinguishes clitics from inXectional aYxes and from words. Further evidence against Monachesi’s claim that vowel deletion indicates aYxal morphology is that there are other contexts for vowel deletion in order to avoid hiatus, most of which are clearly not aYxal. As the Dizionari Garzanti (1994) lists, syllable-Wnal vowels are deleted in combinations of (singular) deWnite article+noun and preposition+deWnite article (21a).
The pronominal clitics in European Portuguese occur after the verb including its inXectional endings in unmarked sentences (see 1a from Hundertmark-Santos Martins 1998). In future tense and conditional mood, however, the clitics occur before the inXectional endings (see 1b from Hundertmark-Santos Martins 1998). This seems to be clear evidence in favour of the aYxal status of these elements. There is, however, also evidence which strongly contradicts the categorisation as aYxes. g. ) the clitics occur preverbally, even in future tense and conditional mood (see 1c).