By James A. Sandos
This e-book is a compelling and balanced historical past of the California missions and their influence at the Indians they attempted to transform. Focusing totally on the non secular clash among the 2 teams, it sheds new gentle at the tensions, accomplishments, and barriers of the California venture adventure. James Sandos, an eminent authority at the American West, strains the historical past of the Franciscan missions from the construction of the 1st one in 1769 till they have been became over to the general public in 1836. Addressing such issues because the singular theology of the missions, the function of song in bonding Indians to Franciscan firms, the ailments as a result of touch with the missions, and the Indian resistance to missionary task, Sandos not just describes what occurred within the California missions yet deals a persuasive cause of why it occurred.
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Extra info for Converting California: Indians and Franciscans in the Missions
Misuse of ayelkwi brought misfortune upon the user such as accident, disease, or death. Because the world was an uncertain place ayelkwi could not always be applied in a controlled manner, and its source contributed to that uncertainty. Ayelkwi came from several sources. Luiseño common knowledge, the lore that belonged to them and not to other tribes, was available to all and thus was the weakest form of ayelkwi. Inherited knowledge-power was passed down from generation to generation, usually by males, and those who possessed it were secretive.
Two reasons probably account for that. One missionary, Antonio Peyri, served as senior priest from its founding in April 1798 until his departure on the eve of secularization in December 1831. While Peyri established a village at the mission site, he varied from the Franciscan preference to concentrate neophytes around the church and generally permitted the Luiseño to remain in their own rancherías after baptism. Peyri’s decentralized approach to missionization permitted the Luiseño to continue their religious practices beyond the sight of priests.
Reversing Boscana’s phrase of ‘‘man woman,’’ which placed the sex at birth as the defining characteristic of such people, some anthropologists now favor ‘‘woman-man’’ or ‘‘man-woman’’ to give priority to the chosen gender role of the individual over sex at birth. ≤∞ Clearly, however, in most Indian societies gender identity 26 Indians at Contact was fluid and Indians bestowed high status upon those who filled special roles. Creation of mixed gender roles gave those who expressed them great power within their communities and made them important people to consult in times of strife.