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Additional info for Advances In Chromatography: Volume 43 (Advances in Chromatography)
V. ION-EXCHANGE GRADIENT ELUTION CHROMATOGRAPHY Ion exchange chromatography (IEC) is presently used more often for separations of small inorganic ions or of ionic biopolymers such as Gradient Elution in LC Chromatography / 35 oligo-nucleotides, nucleic acids, peptides, and proteins than in the analysis of ionic small-molecule compounds, for which RPC or ionpair chromatography usually offers higher efficiency and better control of selectivity and resolution. Columns used in IEC are packed with fine particles of ion exchangers, which contain charged functional ion-exchange groups covalently attached to a solid matrix.
11) . Chromatography on polar adsorbents suffers from a specific inconvenience—significant preferential adsorption of more polar solvents, especially water, which may be connected with long equilibration times if the separation conditions are changed . Hence the control of retention in NPC by adjusting the mobile phase composition can be less reproducible and less predictable than in RPC. These effects may become especially important in gradient elution where the composition of the mobile phase changes during the separation and are the reason for the strong bias against using Gradient Elution in LC Chromatography / 29 Fig.
U(V ), be neglected and the retention factors, k, of all sample solutes remain constant. Each elementary step contributes to the final retention time, tR, and retention volume, VR, by the increments d(t) and d(V ), respectively: dðtÞ ¼ kdðtm Þ; dðV Þ ¼ kdðVmÞ ð4a; bÞ Equation (4a,b) can be integrated after introducing the actual dependence of k on the time, t (or on the volume of the eluate, V, passed through the column) from the start of the gradient until the Gradient Elution in LC Chromatography / 11 elution to yield the expressions for the net gradient-elution retention times, tRV, or volumes, VRV, respectively: ð tR V 0 1 tm dðtÞ ¼ 1; k ðV RV 0 1 Vm dðV Þ ¼1 k ð5a; bÞ The approach for the calculation of the gradient-elution retention volumes or times based on the solution of Eq.