By Marc Steinberg
Untangles the net of commodity, capitalism, and artwork that's anime
In Anime's Media combine, Marc Steinberg convincingly exhibits that anime is way greater than a mode of jap animation. past its quick type of cartooning, anime can be a distinct mode of cultural construction and intake that resulted in the phenomenon that's this day known as "media mix" in Japan and "convergence" within the West.
According to Steinberg, either anime and the media combine have been ignited on January 1, 1963, whilst Astro Boy hit jap television monitors for the 1st time. backed through a chocolate producer with savvy advertising talents, Astro Boy fast turned a cultural icon in Japan. He used to be the poster boy (or, in his case, "sticker boy") either for Meiji Seika's sweets and for what may perhaps occur whilst a goggle-eyed sketch baby fell into the keen clutches of artistic agents. It used to be just a brief step, Steinberg makes transparent, from Astro Boy to Pokémon and beyond.
Steinberg lines the cultural family tree that spawned Astro Boy to the adjustments of eastern media tradition that followed—and ahead to the much more profound advancements in worldwide capitalism supported by way of the stream of characters like Doraemon, hi Kitty, and Suzumiya Haruhi. He info how convergence was once sparked by way of anime, with its astoundingly large promoting of pictures and its franchising throughout media and commodities. He additionally explains, for the 1st time, how the increase of anime can't be understood properly—historically, economically, and culturally—without greedy the crucial function that the media combine performed from the beginning. attractive with movie, animation, and media reports, in addition to analyses of buyer tradition and theories of capitalism, Steinberg deals the 1st sustained learn of the japanese mode of convergence that informs international media practices to today.
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Extra resources for Anime's Media Mix: Franchising Toys and Characters in Japan
33 The product was in both name and in style terebi manga, or “TV manga”—a new genre of moving image irreducible to animation per se. ’”34 With Tetsuwan Atomu, manga became more than a reservoir of thematic elements or characters (as comics had occasionally been previously); it provided the source of a new visual logic and a new relationship between motion and stillness. As a practical and aesthetic response to the economic and temporal constraints of producing animation for the weekly cycle of television, Tetsuwan Atomu’s Mushi Production studio made manga move.
68 Despite the vast number of spectators it reached each day, kamishibai was not, properly speaking, a mass medium, insofar as the latter is generally defined by the phenomenon of a single sender’s message reaching a mass audience. With kamishibai, there was a multiplicity of messages, each inflected by the particular performer and the conditions of the performance, each involving the face-to-face encounter between kamishibai performer and audience. 69 Nonetheless, given the mass numbers of children that kamishibai performers reached each day, it is undeniable that the medium of kamishibai had some of the effects of a mass medium: nationwide circulation of popular series and widespread familiarity with the kamishibai medium.
Manga abetted kamishibai in developing the techniques and cultural acceptance of dynamically still images that would sustain the minimal movement of anime. 82 Yet the contemporary form of manga is said to have truly begun with the 1947 publication of Shintakarajima (New Treasure Island), drawn by Tezuka Osamu and written by Sakai Shichima. Whereas prewar manga had been but one element of the widely read children’s magazines—their feature attractions were serialized novels accompanied by illustrations—in the late 1950s, manga began to overtake in importance other print media such as serial novels and the intermediate format between novels and manga called emonogatari.