By Birendra N. Pramanik, A.K. Ganguly, Michael L. Gross
Discussing ideas to figure out the constitution and machanisms of various compound classics, this booklet covers new chemical and elctrophoretic strategies for swift pattern preconcentration and separation. It summarizes breakthroughs within the concept and instrumentation of electrospray mass spectrometry in pharmaceutical and biomedical functions, presents functional examples for the characterization of peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins, comprises functions in proteomics, combinatorial chemistry, and drug characterization. issues comprise chemical and electrophoretic innovations for quick pattern preconcentration and separation, screening tactics for proteins from libraries of compounds, protein folding and dynamics, and extra
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Extra info for Applied Electrospray Mass Spectrometry: Practical Spectroscopy Series Volume 32
1–1% range. The strong ion-pairing agent trifluoroacetic acid is known to reduce the analyte signal in ESI because analyte cations pair with trifluoroacetate anions, resulting in charge neutralization. This signal suppression can be reduced by postcolumn addition of a weaker acid with a higher boiling point than that of TFA (299). 1% TFA. The problem of excesss alkali metal cations was discussed in the preceding section. Although it is commonly necessary to remove excess Naϩ and Kϩ, it is occasionally necessary to add a cation source to promote the formation of species such as [M ϩ Na]ϩ or [M ϩ NH4]ϩ.
Magnetic sector mass spectrometers are capable of high resolving power. Therefore, they are used for both exact mass measurements and high resolution selected ion monitoring. The maximum resolving power that can be obtained with a double-focusing magnetic sector mass spectrometer varies from 5000 for a benchtop system to over 100,000 for a large instrument operated in the electron ionization (EI) mode. The resolving power is determined by the slit widths, so an increase in resolving power is accompanied by a loss of sensitivity.
A relatively simple calibration equation combined with the use of a lock mass to correct for long-term drift offers an attractive approach to dealing with the need for an internal standard for exact mass measurements. Time-of-flight mass spectrometers are also the fastest of all mass analyzers, and some commercial ESI/TOF systems can measure 100–200 summed Copyright © 2002 by Taylor & Francis mass spectra per second. For comparison, all of the other mass analyzers (quadrupole, magnetic sector, FTICR, and quadrupole ion trap) can operate at a maximum practical data acquisition rate of about 5–10 spectra per second.