By Thomas E Beesley; Raymond P W Scott
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And others. The most common contemporary chiral agent for the separation of enantiomers is, without doubt, the cyclodextrins. Optical activity is measured as the capacity of the substance to rotate the plane of polarized light. Measurements are made by polarizing the light emitted from a source in an analyzer, and then passing it through the sample contained in a cell. The rotated light is allowed to pass through a second analyzer, which is turned until the plane of the light is the same as the incident on the sample cell.
In a similar way, the intercept will be related to the standard entropy change and, thus, the dominant thermodynamic contribution to any specific distribution system can be identified from such curves. 3. However, before discussing the contribution of enthalpy and entropy to the distribution coefficient and, thus, retention, the sign convention for the standard entropy, (∆S) and the standard enthalpy, (∆H) needs to be defined. When the solute molecule is held by molecular forces in the stationary phase its entropy has been reduced as, in the mobile phase, where the molecular interactions were weaker, it has a greater freedom of movement and could behave in a more random manner.
Thus bearing in mind that mass is the product of concentration and volume, the change of mass of solute in plate (p) will be: Now, if equilibrium is to be maintained in the plate (p), the mass (dm) will distribute itself between the two phases, which will result in a change of solute concentration in the mobile phase of dXm(p), and in the stationary phase of dXs(p). Page 33 Then: Substituting for dXs(p) from equation (2): Equating equations (3) and (5) and rearranging: Now, it is mathematically convenient to effect a change of variable.