By Constantin Fasolt
In 1311, on the council of Vienne, William Durant the more youthful (c. 1266-1330), the French bishop and count number, demanded that normal councils should meet each ten years as a way to position potent limits at the papal plenitude of strength simply because 'what touches all has to be licensed by way of all'. this can be the 1st systematic interpretation of William Durant's impressive undertaking to move ultimate legislative authority from the papacy to basic councils. It means that the conciliar thought has a extra ambivalent complexion than is typically well-known. It confirms, at the one hand, that constitutional principles have been deeply embedded within the culture of the church, which enabled Durant to count on the council of Constance through greater than 100 years. nonetheless, Durant attributed an expert to old legislation that overrode his republican principles, sapped their power, and introduced him on a pursuit of the genuine which means of the legislations which can finish basically in his transformation into an historian and a reluctant champion of monarchy. William Durant the Younger's principles therefore support us to appreciate either the origins of the conciliar idea and the transition from overdue medieval reform routine to early glossy humanism and princely sovereignty.
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Additional resources for Council and Hierarchy: The Political Thought of William Durant the Younger
Mais, sous ce fer, que de mollesse, que de souplesse, parfois que de duplicite! A qui la lit tout entiere, la bulle Exsecrabilis elle-meme trahit deja cette faiblesse de caractere. Quant a l'auteur du De modo celebrandi concilii, ce pur chretien des premiers siecles et des grands conciles oecumeniques, il oublie trop facilement certains preceptes de morale chretienne et meme de morale naturelle . . ' Viollet, pp. 39, 86. Viollet was wrong in charging Durant with misquoting Ambrose; see below, p.
Sieben, Konzilsidee des lateinischen Mittelalters, pp. 347f: 'Im Vergleich zu Johannes Quidort stellt Wilhelm Durandus' Beitrag zur Konzeption des Konzils als repraesentatio ecclesiae eher einen Riickschritt dar. Er ist eben kein Anhanger der Volkssouveranitatsidee, sondern ein episkopaler Konstitutionalist . . Einschlussweise ist freilich auch bei Durandus der Gedanke der Volkssouveranitatsidee und Representation vorhanden, namlich da, wo er auf die Konzilien als Grenze der papstlichen Macht hinweist und dabei das Prinzip Quodomnes tangit, secundum iuris utriusque regulam ah omnibus debeat communiter approbari anfuhrt.
Additional information can be gleaned from Gallia -Christiana, especially vol. 1; Ordonnances des roys de France, especially vols. 1,5,11, and 16; and from the papal registers, especially those of Clement V and John XXII. , Archives departementales de la Lozere. Somewhat dated but still by far the best studies of the medieval Gevaudan come from the pen of Charles Poree, archivist of the Departement de la Lozere; see his Le Consulat et Vadministration municipale de Mende, and especially his rich Etudes historiques sur le Gevaudan.