By Kathleen O'Neill
Decentralization is likely one of the such a lot dramatic political and financial traits within the previous couple of a long time. This booklet seeks to deal with its factors, exploring decentralizing reforms in Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. It probes questions of the place and why decentralization is followed, what shape it truly is prone to absorb diversified contexts, and the way it's more likely to evolve over the years. The booklet develops a conception linking decentralization's adoption to the electoral issues of political events: decentralization represents a fascinating technique for events whose aid at subnational degrees appears to be like safer than their customers in nationwide elections.
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Additional info for Decentralizing the State: Elections, Parties, and Local Power in the Andes
Closed lists), and the timing of national and subnational elections. While this theory addresses decentralization’s extent, one could tease out the logic underlying decentralization’s adoption: that subnational interests may use institutional mechanisms to their advantage to press for decentralization. The Colombian case seems a particularly good example of this theory: In Colombia, subnational party members exert strong influence within Colombia’s parties, and the proliferation of party lists approximates an open list system; it is also the Andean country that has decentralized the furthest.
Finally, the change in each of these measures from year to year will also be tested as a predictor of decentralization: Often, the amount of pressure alone does not help to explain policy decisions; rather, the relative amount of pressure may cause new policies to be adopted. These measures allow for variation both across countries and over time also, making the investigation of this hypothesis promising. If the international pressure hypothesis holds, the relationship between each of these measures of susceptibility to international pressure and the incidence of decentralization should be positive and significant.
Examining a special case clarifies this condition. Imagine that decentralization can be enacted on the very last day of the current term (an ideal situation for the decentralizer), so that φ = 0. In this case, the decision to decentralize hinges on the relationship between the party’s probability of winning in the average subnational contest and its probability of winning the presidency; where the first outweighs the second, decentralization will occur. Comparative statics help to illuminate how the probability of decentralization changes as each variable changes, holding all the others constant.