By Dr Benjamin Reilly
Reilly analyzes the layout of electoral structures for divided societies, studying quite a few divided societies which make the most of "vote-pooling" electoral systems--including Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Northern eire and Fiji. He exhibits that political associations which motivate the advance of broad-based, aggregative political events and the place campaigning politicians have incentives to draw votes from quite a number ethnic teams can, less than yes stipulations, motivate a reasonable, accommodatory political pageant and therefore impact the trajectory of democratization in transitional states. this can be a problem to orthodox ways to democracy and clash administration.
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Additional info for Democracy in Divided Societies: Electoral Engineering for Conflict Management (Theories of Institutional Design)
While a rank-ordering of preferences between different alternatives are a fundamental part of any decision-making process, it was not until the eighteenth century that electoral methods for such choices began to be formalised. Preferential voting as a concrete electoral system, rather than a theoretical decision-making rule, originally evolved as a compressed form of run-off election, in which a second round of voting takes place if no candidate secures a majority in the ®rst round; the key to preference voting is its ability to aggregate preference rankings in one round, rather than having to go through successive sequences of elections.
Because run-off elections were developed in response to the requirements of decision-making assemblies, which often needed to make choices between a number of alternatives via sequential elections, the simplest way to conduct them was via successive `eliminations': that is, at each stage the lowest-ranked candidate or option dropping out and successive rounds of voting between those remaining being repeated until a majority winner emerges. Such a system of successive elections entails an implicit rank-ordering of preferences between the different choices presented (Rokkan 1968, 15).
In contrast to this orthodoxy, centripetalists argue that the best way to mitigate the destructive effects of ethnicity in divided societies is not to simply replicate existing ethnic divisions in the legislature, but rather to utilise electoral systems which encourage cooperation and accommodation between rival groups, and therefore work to break down the salience of ethnicity rather than foster its representation in parliament. The theoretical basis for this approach owes much to arguments put forward by Donald Horowitz in Ethnic Groups in Con¯ict (1985) and A Democratic South Africa?